The incidence of back pain has drastically increased. Approximately 90% of Americans experience back pain at different stages of their life. In America, the annual expenditure for the treatment of back pain is approximately $50 billion. Back pain is not a disease; rather it is a symptom due to an underlying pathology.
Pain in the lumbosacral region (lower back) is the most common type of back pain. Back pain may have a variable presentation.
The common causes of back pain are as follows:
The diagnosis of the back pain includes medical history, physical examination and use of imaging techniques such as X-rays, MRI scan, CT scan and electromyogram or EMG. In some cases, blood tests such as sedimentation rate and complete blood count (CBC) may be also be ordered.
Management of back pain comprises of rest, improvement in sitting or standing posture and medications. Different classes of medications such as NSAIDs, opiods analgesics, muscle relaxants and steroids may be prescribed. Surgery is recommended in cases which fail to respond to conservative modalities of treatment and in conditions such as herniated disc and other spinal disorders.